Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides Hapten Design and Synthesis

Creative Biolabs is recognized as the world-leading service provider in the field of anti-hapten monoclonal and polyclonal antibody development. We have integrated the key components of small-molecule hapten design and synthesis to ensure that programs advance while meeting any special requirement with the flexibility to address dynamic challenges. Particularly, our scientists specialized in anilinopyrimidine fungicides hapten design and synthesis will work closely with you to develop the most appropriate strategy for your projects.

Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides

Anilinopyrimidine fungicides, including cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, pyrimethanil, and cyclopyrimidine, are highly efficient compounds with a broad-spectrum antifungal activity. They are widely used in agriculture to protect vegetables, crops, and deciduous fruit from pests like mildew and botrytis. However, it has been demonstrated that anilinopyrimidine fungicides are toxic to aquatic organisms, and may cause adverse effects on the aquatic environment. Therefore, the monitoring of anilinopyrimidine fungicides is of great importance to ensure food safety to protect human health. During the past, numerous methods including GC, GC-MS/MS, GC-MS, HPLC, and LC-MS/ MS have been applied for the determination of anilinopyrimidine fungicides residues. Compared to these instrument-based methods, antigen-antibody interaction based immunoassays are of great advantages like simplicity, high sensitivity, portability, affordable cost, and high sample throughput.

Chemical structures of the three anilinopyrimidine fungicides and the three pyrimethanil haptens. Fig.1 Chemical structures of the three anilinopyrimidine fungicides and the three pyrimethanil haptens. (Cao, 2019)

Services Available at Creative Biolabs

The design and preparation of specific antibody is the key step in the development of a rapid immunoassay method to detect small molecule drug residues. The anilinopyrimidine class of fungicides is small molecules that must be conjugated to carrier proteins to render them immunogenic for antibody preparation. As a leading company in the area of anti-hapten antibody development, Creative Biolabs has gained abundant experience in hapten design and synthesis. Our professional structural biologists are confident in providing customized proposals that best match your particular project. The service we offer include:

Class-specific Haptens Design and Synthesis for Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides

In order to develop multianalyte competitive ELISAs for recognition families of compounds, class-specific haptens are developed to prepare broad-spectrum antibodies. The anilinopyrimidine class of fungicides is small molecules that have a very similar molecular structure, with different substituent groups at the C-3 position of the pyrimidine ring. In order to render them immunogenic, a novel hapten was constructed by introducing a functional carboxylate group at such position to promote a higher recognition of the distal moieties of the molecule. Based on the hapten, a broad-spectrum antibody that could recognize with equivalent affinity the three anilinopyrimidine fungicides has been prepared after immunizing animals.

Compound-specific Haptens Design and Synthesis for Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides

Mepanipyrim and pyrimethanil have been separately used as haptens to prepare complete antigens by coupling with serum albumin and monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunizing the animal with them. Ideally, the compound-specific antibody can specifically recognize and bind a novel compound with high affinity when compared to broad-spectrum antibodies. However, the cross-reaction with cyprodinil and monoclonal antibody obtained by immunization of an animal with mepanipyrim based hapten can reach up to 41%.

With years of experience in hapten design and synthesis, Creative Biolabs is dedicated to producing specific antibodies to support both basic research and discovery projects of our clients. Our scientists are happy to take part in each step of your programs, including but not limited to hapten design and synthesis, hapten modification, as well as antibody production. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Cao, Y., et al. Development a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening pyrimethanil in fruits and vegetables. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2019. 30(1), pp.548-563.
All listed services and products are for Research Use Only. Do Not use in any diagnostic or therapeutic applications.
Online inquiry