Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Nitenpyram
Nitenpyram, shown in Fig.1, is very effective in controlling Nilaparvata (N) lugens. Nitenpyram targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which can inhibit synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of insects. So far, nitenpyram has become one of the most important chemicals in paddy rice protection from N. lugens. This pesticide is ubiquitous and have longer biological half-lives in the environment once applied, and therefore implicitly suggested the increasing probability for human exposure to pesticides. In order to detect whether the pesticide presents in the environment, a rapid, low cost, high-efficiency detection method is necessary. Immunoassay methods based on antigen-antibody are suitable for this condition. Relying on many years of research experiences in the discovery and development of small molecule antibodies, Creative Biolabs offers design and synthesis services of haptens for nitenpyram to promote the antibody development of nitenpyram.
Figure. 1 2D structure of nitenpyram.
Steps of Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Nitenpyram
There are listed the normal steps of the design and synthesis of haptens for nitenpyram. Creative Biolabs will design and synthesize haptens of nitenpyram based on customer’s requirements.
- The design of hapten conjugates. The molecular structure of hapten should contain benzene ring, heterocyclic group, branch structure and so on.
- Selection of a carrier. The most frequently used carriers are serum globulins and albumins, keyhole limpet-hemocyanin (KLH), gelatin, ovalbumin, casein, hemocyanin, thyroglobulin, fibrinogen, and tetanus, cholera, or diphtheria toxoid.
- Preparation of hapten conjugates. The selection of the method for coupling a hapten to protein is dictated by the functional groups present on the hapten and the carrier, and the desired orientation of the hapten for presentation to the immune system. In order to enhance hapten-directed immunogenicity, spacers may be used.
- Analysis of Conjugates. Through non-denatured gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, fluorodensitometric methods, gas chromatography, HPLC, or electrospray mass spectrometry, we will determine the degree of haptenation of the conjugate by measurement of UV or visible light-absorbing groups on the hapten.
Benefits of Haptens
In practice, small chemical compounds, haptens (700–1500 Da), are not good immunogens because they do not have epitopes. An immunogen must have epitopes that can be recognized by antigen-presenting cells and a T-cell receptor. However, when attached to macromolecules (carriers), haptens become immunogenic. Nowadays, haptens and corresponding hapten–carrier conjugates are essential to the development of sensitive quantitative and qualitative immunoassays.
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