Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Copper
Copper is an essential ion of some metalloenzymes necessary for the normal course of biochemical processes, however, it is toxic at high concentration. Effective monitoring and identification of copper are essential for the environment and human health. Designing and synthesizing a hapten for copper ion, obtaining specific antibodies, and then utilizing antigen-antibody specific reaction to perform immunoassay has been an alternative approach in the field of metal ion measurement. Based on the advance in hapten research, Creative Biolabs provides customized services for the design, modification, and synthesis of heavy metals haptens (such as copper hapten), and helps to develop antibodies against heavy metals.
Introduction of Copper
Copper is one of the heavy metals and plays a dual role in the metabolism of living organisms: at low concentration, copper is considered to be an essential element for many organisms, and is a structural and catalytic cofactor of enzymes necessary for living organisms' growth and development; at high concentration, it is toxic and accumulates in the human body for a long time, posing a serious threat to human health. Traditional analytical methods for detecting copper are instrument-based measurements, requiring expensive instruments, a highly qualified analyst, and a time-consuming sample turnaround.
Copper Haptens and Associated Antibodies
Recently, it has been a focus of the synthesis of a novel copper ion hapten and the generation of monoclonal antibodies against the copper-chelated complex. Because heavy metal ions have no functional groups, when used as haptens, they cannot be directly coupled to the carrier for the preparation of artificial antigen. Usually, haptens are prepared based on bifunctional chelating agents. In terms of copper, different bifunctional chelating agents have been used for the preparation of artificial antigens, such as [1-(4-isothiocyanobenzyl) ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (ITCBE), 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid, (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA), 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (TETA). Besides, several protein carriers have been choosing to improve the immunogenicity of immunogen, mainly including bovine serum albumin (BSA), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and ovalbumin (OVA).
Design and Synthesis Services for Copper Haptens
With rich experience and expertise in antibody development, Creative Biolabs can provide customers with one-stop services for small molecular antibody development, extending from hapten design, modification, and synthesis, to subsequent antibody production, labeling, and characterization.
Fig.2 Workflow of hapten design and anti-hapten antibody development at Creative Biolabs.
Synthesizing monoclonal antibodies to heavy metals and applying them to heavy metal detection and monitoring provide new means for exploiting the diverse properties of metallic elements. Creative Biolabs has accomplished several projects in designing & preparing haptens based on heavy metals, and developing associated small molecular antibodies with the desired specificity. For questions or a personal consultation, do not hesitate to contact us.