Design and Synthesis of Haptens for T-2 toxin

T-2 is a type A trichothecene produced by strains of Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium poae and Fusarium acuinatum. Moreover, T-2 toxin is a non-volatile, water soluble mycotoxin and has a great tolerance to light and temperature. It is noticed that T-2 toxin has a broad array of toxic influences on humans and animals, including acute and chronic toxicity. Creative Biolabs has a wealth of expertise in antibody design and development. Our excellent expert staff have many successful cases in designing and developing small molecule antibodies and can help our clients expedite anti-T-2 toxin antibody research processes.

Advantages of Haptens

Hapten is the small molecule that can induce the production of antibody molecules only when conjugated to a larger molecule, called a carrier molecule. The hapten-carrier complex can induce the production of antibodies, which the unbound hapten cannot do, and becomes immunogenic (capable of eliciting an immune response). The hapten then reacts specifically with the antibodies generated against it to stimulate an immune or allergic response.

Introduction of T-2 Toxin

In the naturally occurring trichothecenes in the food, T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by various species of Fusarium. Generally, T-2 toxin is soluble in water, and the major metabolic reactions are usually hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and conjugation. After ingestion, T-2 toxin causes acute and chronic toxicity, and results in apoptosis in the immune system and fetal tissues. On the one hand, T-2 toxin is one of the most acutely toxic members of the trichothecene family. It can cause emesis, diarrhea, lethargy, weight loss, hemorrhage, inhibition of immunity, necrosis, damage of cartilaginous tissues, apoptosis, and death. On the other hand, T-2 toxin is a well-known inhibitor of protein synthesis resulting from binding peptidyltransferase. Furthermore, T-2 toxin inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, interferes with the metabolism of membrane phospholipids, and improves the level of liver lipid peroxides.

Chemical structure of T-2 toxin. Fig.1 Chemical structure of T-2 toxin. (Li, 2011).

Main Steps of Design and Synthesis of Haptens for T-2 toxin

The main four steps to design and synthesis of haptens for T-2 toxin are listed below:

Design and Synthesis of Haptens for T-2 toxin

Creative Biolabs will work with partner customers to define and discuss specific requirements and expectations to meet the partnership objectives. We aspire to become the trusted service provider of your first choice. Our advanced technologies and highly experienced researchers are committed to improving your project and reducing the overall development timeline. Based on our professional experiences in antibody design and development, we now offer the service about the design and synthesis of haptens for T-2 toxin. If you are interested in this service, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Li, Y.; et al. T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: review of toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2011, 59(8): 3441-3453.
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