Pyrethroid Insecticides Hapten Design and Synthesis
With extensive experience and advanced hapten design platform, Creative Biolabs becomes a global leader in the field of hapten antibody development. To meet the growing demand for pyrethroid insecticides hapten, Creative Biolabs has established one-stop solutions for design and synthesis a series of pyrethroid insecticides haptens.
Synthetic pyrethroids are used widely to control cockroaches, houseflies, against mosquitoes, simulid, and the tsetse fly, and to control a wide range of pests not only in agriculture and forestry but also in public health and veterinary applications. Compared with that of other classes of insecticides, the use of synthetic pyrethroids has been increased, which is attributed to their remarkably high-insecticidal activities and low toxicities to mammals. Pyrethroids consist of one to three asymmetric carbon atoms (chiral centers), cyclopropane carboxylic acid moieties (or an equivalent group) linked to aromatic alcohols through a central ester (or ether) bond. The basic pyrethroid structure might alterative to increase the insecticidal potency, photostability, or insecticidal activity against non-target species.
The synthetic pyrethroids can be notionally classified into two groups of compounds based on their chemical structure of physical properties and slightly different mechanisms of action at insect target sites. The type I compounds, containing natural pyrethrins and some synthetic pyrethroids, have a basic structure of cyclopropane carboxylic ester and are simple cyclic alcohol esters of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid. These type I compounds include allethrin, bioallethrin, permethrin, phenothrin, resmethrin, tefluthrin, bioresmethrin, and tetramethrin. The type II pyrethroids have a cyano group and contain esters of an arylcyanohydrin, including cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, fenvalerate, and flucythrinate.
Fig.1 Structures of some synthetic pyrethroids. (Mak, 2005)
Pyrethroid Insecticides Hapten Design and Synthesis Service
Obtaining haptens with proper chemical structures is the key to the production of novel specific antibodies and immunoassays. According to the characteristics of the two types of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides, researchers have designed various types of haptens to attempt to produce antibodies against both types of pyrethroid insecticides. Three series of haptens or metabolite analogs can be designed and synthesized for type I pyrethroids, type II pyrethroids, or both types of pyrethroids, with spacer attachment (1) at the aromatic moiety, (2) through the middle of the molecule, and (3) only at the cyclopropane moiety ring. The antibodies induced by class-specific haptens have cross-reactivity for both type I and type II. However, antibodies to compound-specific hapten would be expected to selectively particular recognize pyrethroids, such as deltamethrin, cypermethrin, or λ-cyhalothrin.
- Design and Synthesis of Class-specific Haptens for Pyrethroid Insecticides
- Design and Synthesis of Compound-specific Haptens for Pyrethroid Insecticides
The class selective immunoassay based on the antibody-antigen combination with the most selectivity for either type I or type II pyrethroids is desirable; it can be further optimized and tested in monitoring studies to distinguish between type I and II pyrethroids. The immunoassays for a type of compounds are expected, and some class-specific antibodies against both type I or type II pyrethroids insecticides have been reported. With our best hapten design strategy to contain the common portion of pyrethroids and calculation on the computer-assisted molecular modeling, Creative Biolabs can help our customers to choose the best immunizing hapten that is selective for the detection of type I or type II pyrethroid insecticides.
In order to develop antibodies with different selectivities utilized various spacer attachment points, Creative Biolabs provides useful information regarding the physical/chemical properties and offers the best quality compound-specific hapten design service based on our advanced computer-assisted molecular modeling.
Creative Biolabs has years’ experience in hapten design and synthesis, and we will provide the best support to help significantly contribute to the successes of your projects. If you are interested in pyrethroid insecticides hapten design and synthesis services, please feel free to contact us for more information.
- Mak, S. K.; et al. Development of a class selective immunoassay for the type II pyrethroid insecticides. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2005, 534(1): 109-120.