Neonicotinoid Insecticides Hapten Design and Synthesis
Neonicotinoid insecticides are synthesized by continuous optimization and modification for nicotinoid structures. They are the fourth generation of insecticides after organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides. Similar to nicotinoids, neonicotinoid insecticides can bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of insects. Because of the high sensitivity of insects and low toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to mammals, they have been utilized widely as substitutes of conventional insecticides, such as organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. Creative Biolabs is an excellent service provider and committed to providing a full range of hapten design and synthesis services for neonicotinoid insecticides with high quality and low cost. Our end-to-end hapten design, synthesis, and modification services will help you optimize the anti-neonicotinoid insecticide haptens.
Types and Structures of Neonicotinoid Insecticides
According to the pharmacophore structures, neonicotinoid insecticides are classified into three types: nitrosamines, only a few compounds fall into this kind of compounds, such as nitenpyram; the nitro pulse type, such as imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, sulfluramid; and the cyano amidine type, such as acetamiprid and thiacloprid. The chemical structures of neonicotinoid insecticides are shown in Fig.1.
Figure. 1 Chemical structures of neonicotinoid insecticides. (Xu, 2019)
Nitenpyram is one of the second-generation neonicotinoid families of pesticides. Nitenpyram targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which can inhibit synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of insects and has high efficiency against numerous sucking pests, such as Nilaparvata lugens and Aphis gossypii. At Creative Biolabs, we select the most suitable position on the molecule for carrier protein conjugation based on customers’ requirements. Then, the antibodies can gather two or more structural analogs after immunizing animals. At the final step, we will test and confirm the characterization and assay optimization of antibodies.
Thiamethoxam is a systemic insecticide or pesticide in the neonicotinoid families. Generally, thiamethoxam can be applied as a foliar application, a soil treatment and a seed treatment. It works by the use of the insects' acetylcholine receptors, making it selectively toxic to insects but not mammals. Based on clients’ objectives, Creative Biolabs will design and synthesize anti-thiamethoxan haptens. Also, we provide modification and characterization services of haptens.
Acetamiprid (ACM) is a broad-spectrum insecticide employed for the protection of vegetables and fruits. However, the various uses of this pesticide cause contamination of the environment, including soil, water, and even food products. Hence, the detection of pesticides is important for food safety assurance. At Creative Biolabs, we provide the design and synthesis services of ACM haptens, to help customers developing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against ACM.
Creative Biolabs has a wealth of expertise in the design and synthesis of haptens for neonicotinoid insecticides. Our excellent expert staffs provide a variety of flexible and reliable solutions to meet customers’ objectives. If you are interested in our services above, please feel free to contact us.
- Xu, C.; et al. (2019). Food Immunoassay. 2019: 76.