Design and Synthesis of Class-specific Haptens for β-agonists

Creative Biolabs is a global company that focuses on small-molecule antibody discovery and development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we can provide a series of β-agonists hapten design and synthesis services basing on a wide variety of state-of-art technologies. We are proud to partner with our clients on the journey of bringing novel haptens or antibodies to the clinical application.

Introduction to β-agonists

Due to its strong anti-inflammatory effects, beta-agonists (β-agonists) have been utilized in the treatment of many chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases. Many studies have revealed that β-agonists can help open the airways and regulate muscle relaxation in asthma patients. Meanwhile, the data have also suggested that β-agonists can rapidly trigger the activation of beta-2 receptors on the muscle to relieve the symptoms of dyspnea. Therefore, β-agonists has been regarded as first-line drugs in clinical use. A number of β-agonists, such as metaproterenol, levalbuterol, pirbuterol, and albuterol, have been generated and broadly used in clinical settings. However, recent researchers have indicated that β-agonists can lead to several dose-related severe adverse reactions, including tremors, increased palpitations, and inflammation. As a result, some β-agonists have been banned by many countries, including China.

In this condition, a wide variety of antibody-based immunoassays have been developed for the detection of β-agonist residues in livestock breeding. Among them, antibodies generated by new β-agonist haptens are attractive tools for developing a rapid and accurate immunoassay. For instance, a new hapten has been designed to obtain a specific monoclonal antibody against salbutamol (SAL) with an IC50 value of 0.74 ng/mL. The results have illustrated that this antibody shares a 115% cross-reactivity with clenbuterol by using the same hapten.

Synthesis of specific hapten for salbutamol and coupling of hapten to protein. Fig.1 Synthesis of specific hapten for salbutamol and coupling of hapten to protein. (Liu, 2014)

Our Platform for Design and Synthesis of Class-specific β-agonists Haptens

In the past few years, the illegal use of β-agonists in livestock production has aroused much attention. As a consequence, a panel of assays, such as lateral flow assay (LFA), have been established for detecting β-agonist or its derivatives in the food industry. Meanwhile, antibody performance has also become a key factor in determining the sensitivity and specificity of these assays. Furthermore, many reports have also indicated that the hydrophobic domain of the hapten spacer C-2 is strongly associated with the class specificity of novel antibodies.

As a professional expert in the field of class specificity antibody discovery and novel hapten design, Creative Biolabs offers a one-stop solution hapten-based platform for our clients, to design and synthesize suitable class-specific haptens for β-agonists, to generate a high affinity and specific antibody, as well as to evaluate the properties of the antibody by using various immunoassays. For example, we have successfully designed and synthesized a class-specific hapten for SAL. Several female BALB/c mice have been immunized with new SAL hapten-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate. The data have suggested that this class specificity antibody has similar selectivity for salbutamol and has high cross-reactivity (107%) with other types of β-agonists.

UV-vis spectrum of SAL-hapten, OVA, KLH, and their conjugates. Fig.2 UV-vis spectrum of SAL-hapten, OVA, KLH, and their conjugates. (Liu, 2014)

By continuing to grow in response to the requirements of our clients, Creative Biolabs is dedicated to exploring novel small-molecule haptens to offer the most comprehensive, integrated portfolio of antibody discovery products and solutions. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for closer communication to learn how we can be involved in your project. Separate services or integrated end-to-end solutions are all welcomed.


  1. Liu, L.; et al. Structure-specific hapten design for the screening of highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies to salbutamol. Analytical Methods. 2014, 6(12): 4228-4233.
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