Fumonisins Hapten Design and Synthesis

The appropriate design of the required immunogen is critical to the success of high-quality antibodies against fumonisins production. Creative Biolabs is a long-term expert in the field of hapten design and synthesis and is confident to provide the best-fit fumonisins hapten design and synthesis service with the highest efficiency and the best quality.


The fumonisins are a group of potent and carcinogenic Fusarium mycotoxins produced by many Fusarium species. The Fusarium verticillioides (former name is Fusarium moniliforme) and Fusarium proliferatum, the common fungal contaminant in maize, are the primary sources of fumonisins. Fumonisins are not only produced by Fusarium species but also other fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori. Fumonisins are classified into four main structurally distinct groups based on the structure of their backbone and the functional groups at C1, 2, 3 and 10 positions, designated fumonisins A, B, C, and P. Among them, the most toxic and most abundant naturally occurring fumonisins are those of the B series, namely FB1, FB2, and FB3 described as amorphous solids.

The main fumonisins. Fig.1 The main fumonisins. (Dall’Asta, 2009)

The chemical structure of fumonisins consists of a 19-carbon (fumonisin C) or a 20-carbon (fumonisin A, B, and P) amino-polyhydroxy alkyl chain in fumonisins, and some different chemical groups depending on the series of fumonisin analogue. Basically, compounds at the carbon position number 14 and 15 are tricarballylic acid (TCA) and can be found in almost all groups of fumonisins. The fumonisin B series is with a primary amine; the fumonisin A series are N-acetylated; the nitrogen of the fumonisin P series exists within a 3-hydroxypyridinium group; the fumonisin C series lack the terminal methyl group at C-1. The extent of differences among chemical structures of fumonisins is in the C-2 position, C3, and C-10 positions. They severely impact certain animals and human health, such as leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in swine, liver cancer in rats, human esophageal cancer. Fumonisins assume seriously significant concerns recently by the widespread presence in foods and feeds, which may cause potential health hazards.

Fumonisins Hapten Design and Synthesis Service

The cross-reactivity of anti-fumonisins antibodies towards the FB1, FB2, FB3 suggests that an immunodominant region of the immunogen existed near the union of the tricarballylic acids to the backbone, which is commonly present in the FB, FB1, and FB2 molecules. Such cross-reaction is particularly desirable as a class-specific immunoassay since it enables the simultaneous detection of all three fumonisins relative to chemical methods that discern the individual toxins.

The development of specific anti-fumonisins antibodies is a challenge because those fumonisins are hapten molecules, which are non-immunogenic and too small to be recognized by the immune system. The design and synthesis of the functional group of the hapten for stable cross-linking with carrier protein is the most important aspect of specific antibody generation against a small molecule for immunoassay applications. Fumonisins contain several potential sites for design and modification, such as the hydroxyl groups, the TCA side chains, and the primary amine. Based on our computer-assisted molecular modeling, Creative Biolabs offers fumonisins hapten design and synthesis services for our customers all over the world.

Design and Synthesis of Class-specific Haptens for FB1

In order to detect several related analytes of FB1, it is necessary to design class-specific haptens to develop broad-spectrum antibodies. Properly class-specific haptens design is the key factor to result in the rapid progress of immunoassays for FB1. Based on the computer-assisted molecular modeling of molecular properties of the designed haptens, Creative Biolabs can provide class-specific FB1 haptens design and synthesis services for our customers.

Properly hapten design is the key factor when developing antibodies to small molecules, Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in hapten design and can provide the best solutions of hapten design, modification, and synthesis in response to customers' different requirements. If additional help is needed, please contact us directly and consult our technical supports for more details.


  1. Dall’Asta, C.; et al. Difficulties in fumonisin determination: the issue of hidden fumonisins. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2009, 395(5): 1335-1345.
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