Design and Synthesis of Compound-specific Haptens for Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides

With the emphasis on food security, new modern fungicides have been developed over the past decade to reduce the health risks and economic impacts of plant pathogens. Pyrimidine groups of pesticides are one of the widely used chemical tools, which have protection and treatment capabilities, and have both systemic conduction and fumigation effects. Anilinopyrimidine fungicide can be quickly transmitted to all parts of the plant after application, inhibiting the secretion of pathogenic proteins, reducing the level of hydrolase, inhibiting the production of infectious enzymes by pathogenic bacteria, thereby preventing the infection of bacteria and killing them completely. To help improve the detection process, Creative Biolabs provides compound-specific anilinopyrimidine hapten design and synthesis services, which can induce the production of sufficient antibodies to meet the detection requirements.

Synthesis and carboxylate activation of Mepanipyrim hapten. Fig.1 Synthesis and carboxylate activation of Mepanipyrim hapten. (Esteve-Turrillas, 2013)

The Importance of Anilinopyrimidine Hapten for Immunoassay

In order to detect pesticide residues in crops, many instruments and methods have been developed for anilinopyrimidine analysis. At present, the most commonly used multi-residue analysis method based on gas chromatography or liquid chromatography. However, chromatographic methods have limitations in terms of sample yield, analysis cost, and handling of solvent residues. To solve these problems, immunoassay methods are increasingly applied to the detection of chemical residues.

Among the different types of common antibody-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is undoubtedly the most scalable and practical technology, because antibodies generally have high sensitivity and selectivity and relatively low production costs. However, anilinopyrimidine has a small molecular weight and cannot stimulate the body to produce specific antibodies against pesticide antigenic determinants. It must be connected to macromolecular substances to stimulate the body to produce antibodies. The purpose of Creative Biolabs hapten synthesis service is to generate high-affinity and selective antibodies against anilinopyrimidine.

Compound-specific Anilinopyrimidine Hapten Design and Synthesis Service

The design concept of compound specificity is to carry out independent modification according to the unique structure of different anilinopyrimidine molecules, so that it can produce antibodies with higher specificity and can recognize a single type of molecule individually. Because Anilinopyrimidine has a hydrocarbon spacer arm connected by an amine nitrogen atom, so that both aromatic rings remain unchanged, we usually prepare the hapten in a two-step process. The synthesized hapten is obtained in high purity after being purified by column chromatography, so that the desired bioconjugate can be prepared under stoichiometrically controlled conditions.

Creative Biolabs' compound-specific anilinopyrimidine fungicide hapten design is flexible because it introduces spacer arms to the common positions of different molecules, thereby maintaining the unique pyrimidine ring. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies evaluated the selectivity of these compounds, and the results confirm the applicability of this hapten structure for specific antibody generation.

If you want to inquire more about our compound-specific anilinopyrimidine hapten design and synthesis services, please contact us.


  1. Esteve-Turrillas, F. A.; et al. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity. Analyst. 2013, 138.12: 3360-3364.
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