Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural-occurring mycotoxin commonly produced by Fusarium graminearum and belongs to the most occurred Fusarium mycotoxins. Due to the high toxicity of Fusarium mycotoxins and high occurrence of the fungi species producing them, researches in terms of DON are crucially necessary. Combining many years of experience in small molecule antibody development, Creative Biolabs offers professional design and synthesis services of haptens for DON, including the design, synthesis, and characteristic services based on customers’ special requirements.

Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Potential influences of DON on human health may occur after ingestion of contaminated foods from oats, barley, wheat, corn, or other grains. Also, DON can be detected in buckwheat, sorghum, popcorn and other foods for human consumption, such as flour, bread, noodles, beer, and malt. Chemically DON is a member of the trichothecenes family of mycotoxins, shown in Fig.1 below. Structurally, it is a polar organic compound, which belongs to the type B trichothecenes and its chemical name is 12,13-epoxy-3α,7α,15-trihydroxytrichothec-9-en-8-on. In its molecule, it contains 3 free hydroxy groups (-OH), which are associated with its toxicity. One of the most important physicochemical properties of DON is to withstand high temperatures. For example, DON can be stable under temperature within 170°C-350°C. However, DON is not stable in water.

Chemical structure of DON. Fig.1 Chemical structure of DON. (Sobrova, 2010)

Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Haptens are small-molecular-weight compounds that evoke an immune response only when they are attached to carrier proteins because they lack epitopes. Once the body has generated antibodies to a hapten-carrier adduct, the small-molecule hapten is possibly able to bind to the antibody and can be recognized by T cells to elicit an immune response. Our Hapten-related services include:

  • Hapten design. The molecular structure of hapten should contain a certain degree of complexity or rigidity, such as containing benzene ring, heterocyclic group, branch structure and so on.
  • Hapten modification. The hapten might be directly coupled to the carrier for the preparation of artificial antigen if it contains active groups, such as –COOH, –NH2, –OH, etc.
  • Preparation of hapten derivatives. Hapten derivatives can be prepared via modifying the existing hapten, relevant intermediate or metabolite of the hapten, or be re–synthesized starting from raw materials.
  • Choice of linking spacer in hapten derivatives. The linking between the hapten and carrier is the linking spacer. The choice of linking spacer should be fellow the following basic principles:
  • The linking spacer should be far from the functional groups in order to avoid affecting the recognition of antibodies to hapten.
  • The length of linking spacer should be appropriate.

Creative Biolabs is well-positioned to leverage our experience to advance your researches. Based on our capacities in antibody design and development, we now offer the service about design, synthesis, and detection of haptens for DON. If you are interested in this service, please directly contact us for more details.


  1. Sobrova, P.; et al. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity. Interdisciplinary toxicology. 2010, 3(3): 94-99.
All listed services and products are for Research Use Only. Do Not use in any diagnostic or therapeutic applications.


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