Nitrofurans Hapten Design and Synthesis

Creative Biolabs is a global company that focuses on hapten discovery and small molecule antibody development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we can provide a series of nitrofurans-associated hapten and antibody discovery services for treating various infectious diseases. We are dedicated to assisting our clients with the most satisfactory data to meet any requirements of your projects.

Introduction to Nitrofurans

Nitrofurans are a class of drugs that have been used as antibiotics for preventing and treating bacterial infections in a number of livestock species. Pilot studies have shown that nitrofurans are usually composed of a structure of 5-nitrofuran ring and have a broad range of bactericidal effects. Many kinds of nitrofurans, such as nitrofurazone (NFZ), nitrofurantoin (NFT), and furazolidone (FZD), have been developed and widely used in animal food production. Moreover, a variety of metabolites of nitrofurans, including 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), as well as 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl (AMOZ) have been identified and have become significant biomarkers for detecting illegal use of nitrofurans in foods.

In addition, various immunoassays have also been generated to provide a fast, reliable and high-throughput screening system for the risk assessment of animal food. Among them, the small molecule antibody has been considered as a powerful tool for detecting nitrofurans and their metabolites. Normally, antibodies against different haptens for nitrofurans metabolites are designed based on the specific binding of new haptens and a carrier protein. Different species of animals, such as rats, mice, rabbits, goats, and pigs, can be immunized for synthesizing immunogens. Furthermore, recent researchers have revealed that many kinds of nitrofuran-based hapten derivatives can also be conjugated to target proteins for producing small molecule antibody with high specificity. The data have suggested that the sensitivity of different antibodies varies significantly, but in general, they all have very high sensitivity and no or litter cross-reactivity (<0.01) with the carrier protein or other metabolites.

Molecular structures of NFF, NFF hapten, and the 7 nitrofuran drugs. Fig.1 Molecular structures of NFF, NFF hapten, and the 7 nitrofuran drugs. (Li, 2010)

Our Platform for Nitrofurans Hapten Design and Synthesis

In the past few years, nitrofuran drugs have been prohibited by many countries due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in humans. However, these drugs could be illegally used in animal feeds. Therefore, many small-molecule antibodies have been developed for detecting the presence of nitrofurans and the metabolites in food-producing animals. Creative Biolabs has established a one-stop solution platform to design, synthesize, and modify nitrofuran-associated haptens for further antibody production. Currently, a large number of haptens for the main types of nitrofuran metabolites, including but not limited to: the haptens for AOZ, the haptens for SEM, and the haptens for AMOZ, have been designed for developing antibodies for a broad-spectrum test. In addition, we also offer a wide range of small molecule antibody discovery services for our clients by using the hybridoma technique and novel haptens, which can be used to precisely detect the metabolites of nitrofuran antibiotics.

Chief Services

  • Hapten design and synthesis
  • Hapten modification and characterization
  • The optimization of the hapten discovery process
  • The synthesis of immunogen and coating antigen
  • Animal immunization and antibody production
  • The characterization of antibody titers and binding activity
  • The assessment of antibody performances

Creative Biolabs is recognized as the world leader for providing the most diverse portfolio of nitrofuran-based hapten discovery solutions for worldwide customers. We are proud to partner with our clients on the journey of bringing new haptens to small molecule antibody development. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for closer communication to learn how we can be involved in your project. Separate services or integrated end-to-end solutions are all welcomed.


  1. Li, J.; et al. Broad specificity indirect competitive immunoassay for determination of nitrofurans in animal feeds. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2010, 678(1): 1-6.
All listed services and products are for Research Use Only. Do Not use in any diagnostic or therapeutic applications.
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