Design and Synthesis of Compound-specific Haptens for β-agonists

Creative Biolabs has an entrepreneurial team of highly-skilled and qualified experts in hapten design and small-molecule antibody development. The members have originated from a rich academic research background, bringing their experience into translation. We are very proud of providing high-quality, omnidirectional compound-specific hapten-based services targeting β-agonists to our valued clients to remove the difficulties of your projects.

Introduction to β-agonists

Beta-agonists (β-agonists) have been considered as bronchodilators and have been broadly used in treating several respiratory diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Normally, β-agonists are capable of mediating the function of classic β2 adrenoceptor (β2AR) signaling pathway by activating the β2ARs in various muscle cells. However, pilot studies have shown that the β agonists used clinically are strongly associated with many side effects, including anxiety, insomnia, as well as hypoglycemia, in patients. Therefore, many attempts have been made in the past few years to reduce adverse reactions and improve the therapeutic effect. In recent studies, the compound-specific hapten for β-agonists has been synthesized and applied in the generation of novel antibodies against β-agonist or its residues. In general, a linking group in C-1 sites will be designed to enhance the recognition of immunogen and to form a unique antibody-binding domain.

The classic β2AR signaling pathway. Fig.1 The classic β2AR signaling pathway. (Charlotte, 2017)

Design and Synthesis of Compound-specific β-agonists Haptens

The illegal use of β-agonists has caused a serious threat to human safety in recent years. Many countries, including China and the United States, have passed a law to ban the use of β-agonist in food and agriculture. As a result, it is essential to develop a wide spectrum of immunoassays to detecting the β-agonist residue in different kinds of food products. Among them, compound-specific β-agonist haptens have become attractive tools for developing small-molecule antibodies used in these assays, such as enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).

Nowadays, Creative Biolabs offers a full range of customized compound-specific β-agonist hapten-based services, ranging from β-agonist hapten discovery, β-agonist hapten optimization, β-agonist hapten assessment, to small-molecule antibody development. Equipped with a team of experts and advanced technologies, we have established a well-mature platform to bring further progress in this field. We have successfully designed several haptens for different β-agonists, such as salbutamol and clenbuterol. Moreover, these haptens have been used for the generation of novel compound-specific antibodies. For instance, a novel antibody against salbutamol generated by our labs has shown high sensitivity and a high cross-reactivity (106%) with clenbuterol in heterologous competitive indirect ELISA.

Competitive indirect (ciELISA) calibration curve for R-(-)-salbutamol. Fig.2 Competitive indirect (ciELISA) calibration curve for R-(-)-salbutamol. (Wang, 2018)

Creative Biolabs is recognized as the world leader for providing the most diverse portfolio of β-agonist-based hapten discovery solutions for worldwide customers. We are proud to partner with our clients on the journey of bringing novel haptens and small-molecule antibody candidates to market. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or directly sent us an inquiry.


  1. Charlotte, K. B.; et al. β2-agonists. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2017, 237: 23-40.
  2. Wang, L.; et al. Four hapten spacer sites modulating class specificity: nondirectional multianalyte immunoassay for 31 β-agonists and analogs. Analytical chemistry. 2018, 90(4): 2716-2724.
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