Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Malachite Green

Creative Biolabs is supported by an advisory board with seasoned professionals in hapten design, synthesis, evaluation, and optimization. We have accumulated extensive experience from the accomplishment of different projects, during which we have received a lot of recognition and praise from our clients. Currently, we are capable of providing our clients with a variety of customized hapten services on the malachite green. We will accommodate the specific properties of your product and provide flexible integrated solutions.

Introduction to Malachite Green

Malachite green, also known as benzaldehyde green or china green, is an organic dye that plays an important role in different industries, such as garment manufacturing and food industry. Meanwhile, some studies have revealed that it can be used as an antibiotic for the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. However, recent researchers have demonstrated that malachite green appears to be carcinogenic in vivo and is associated with many adverse reactions in humans. Therefore, a wide spectrum of analytical methods has been generated for the determination of malachite green and leuco-malachite green, as well as malachite green residues. For example, a panel of immunoassays have been developed by using newly synthesized haptens for malachite green. In this condition, novel haptens have become powerful tools for the development of specific antibodies against leuco-malachite green or malachite green. Besides. the results have shown most produced antibodies have high specificity, affinity, sensitivity, and good reproducibility.

Structure of malachite green and leuco-malachite green. Fig.1 Structure of malachite green and leuco-malachite green. (Kong, 2018)

Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Malachite Green

Malachite green is an industrial dye with mutagenicity and tumorigenicity, which is often used illegally as therapeutic drugs in the aquaculture industry. As a consequence, much effort has been made to design reliable haptens for detecting malachite green and leuco-malachite green, a metabolite in vivo. As an expert in the field of hapten discovery, Creative Biolabs has established a comprehensive platform for offering a range of haptens-based services for different food additives, including malachite green. Up to now, we can provide many haptens specific for malachite green or its residues for our clients. For instance, several haptens with different arm linkers against leuco-malachite green have been generated. They are conjugated to carrier proteins and covalently attached to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for immunizing animals. The animal sera with high affinity will be selected for producing antibodies. Calculated with different animal models, the cross-reactivity for these haptens (with a carbon atom charge of 0.1-0.2) is more than 40%. In addition, we also offer a collection of services to improve the efficacy of your novel haptens. The critical functional groups, suitable spacer linker, and optimal chemical structure of leuco-malachite green will be selected and used to increase antibody performance.

Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Malachite Green Fig.2 Structure cross-reactivity relationship of the rabbit (black) and mice (orange) antibodies. (Kong, 2018)

Creative Biolabs has an entrepreneurial team of highly-skilled and qualified experts in hapten design and small-molecule antibody development. The members have originated from a rich academic research background, bringing their experience into translation. We are very proud of providing high-quality, omnidirectional malachite green hapten-based solutions for our valued clients to help remove the difficulties of your projects. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.


  1. Kong, D. X.; et al. Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Verification Demonstrated the Impossibility of Finding Haptens Identifying Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Leuco Metabolites Simultaneously. Molecules. 2018, 15: 23(3).
All listed services and products are for Research Use Only. Do Not use in any diagnostic or therapeutic applications.


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