Design and Synthesis of Haptens for 3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ)

Creative Biolabs has an entrepreneurial team of highly-skilled and qualified experts in hapten design and synthesis. The members have originated from a rich academic research background, bringing their experience into translation. We are very proud of providing high-quality, omnidirectional hapten discovery services targeting 3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) for our valued clients to remove the difficulties of your projects. Up to now, we have also generated a novel platform to design, synthesize, evaluate, and modify potential haptens for AOZ. This platform has been considered as an attractive strategy for producing small molecule haptens for AOZ with high specificity and affinity.

Introduction to 3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ)

Furazolidone, a type of nitrofuran antibiotics that plays an important role in treating a series of infectious diseases in bacteria and protozoa. Pilot studies have demonstrated that furazolidone may cause many severe side effects, such as carcinogenicity, in the clinical application and has been banned in many countries. However, the abuse of furazolidone still occurs in recent years due to its low cost and effectiveness. Nowadays, 3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), the metabolite derived from furazolidone, has been broadly used for regulating the abuse of furazolidone in the field of animal origin food production. A panel of immunoassays have been generated and has proven its significant role in screening AOZ residue. For example, the derivative of AOZ, 3-(2-nitrobenzylideneamino) oxazolidin-2-one (NPAOZ) is usually detected by these assays to monitoring the illegal furazolidone use. Moreover, many attempts have been made to design and synthesis of AOZ haptens and develop analytical methods for direct detecting AOZ itself.

Chemical structures of the banned nitrofuran furazolidone, its marker residue AOZ, the target derivative NPAOZ, and the immunogen hapten CPAOZ. Fig.1 Chemical structures of the banned nitrofuran furazolidone, its marker residue AOZ, the target derivative NPAOZ, and the immunogen hapten CPAOZ. (Cooper, 2004)

Our Platform for Design and Synthesis of AOZ Haptens

Hapten design has shown its efficacy in generating novel immunoassays for small molecules and producing new antibodies against various infectious diseases. With in-depth expertise in hapten design and synthesis, Creative Biolabs has developed a comprehensive platform to provide a wide spectrum of small molecule hapten-based services targeting different kinds of antibiotics, such as furazolidone.

Currently, an attractive strategy has been generated to design efficient haptens for AOZ. In general, the AOZ haptens will be designed and synthesized by adding a specific spacer into the nitryl site of AOZ. Meanwhile, The hapten for AOZ is further conjugated to carrier proteins (BSA and OVA) to obtain novel antigens for producing antibodies against AOZ. Moreover, the LiCl-N(Et)3 catalysis system has been introduced to improve the yield of new AOZ haptens. The result collected from various analytical methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), have indicated that these AOZ haptens can trigger enough immune responses against different infectious diseases.

UV-VIS spectra of the immunogen and coating antigen for AOZ. Fig.2 UV-VIS spectra of the immunogen and coating antigen for AOZ. (Ding, 2017)

To help our clients develop safe and effective haptens, Creative Biolabs is continuously exploring novel design and synthesis methods for small molecule hapten discovery solutions. We are committed to helping our clients to shorten the hapten development timeline in a cost-effective manner. If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us for more details.


  1. Cooper, K. M.; et al. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibodies to a derivative of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, a metabolite of the nitrofuran furazolidone. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2004, 520(1-2): 79-86.
  2. Ding, X.; et al. Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone in catfish muscle with indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunochromatographic assays. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2017, 28(3): 463-475.
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