Small-molecule Hapten Design and Synthesis
Designing a suitable hapten is a critical step for the whole process of producing a class- or compound-specificity antibody. In terms of our extensive experience in hapten design, Creative Biolabs is confident in designing optimal hapten formats with high-quality for your projects.
The Importance of Hapten Structure
The structural characteristics of the haptens are often useful in understanding antibody specificity, which belongs to groups of structurally related compounds. Some of the antibodies generated can bind to all/some members of a family; the corresponding conserved structural elements should be maintained in the hapten design process. The chemical structure, composition, molecular orientation, electronic and spatial conformational properties of the synthetic hapten are crucial determinants. On the other hand, some antibodies are specific for one particular compound; in this form, the regions which distinguish particular compound should be exposed when conjugated. Besides, the production of antigen-special antibodies also depends on the selection of carrier used as chaperone and the method of conjugation of carrier.
The Key Points of Hapten Design
Optimal hapten design criteria are based on various factors such as the location of the conjugation, length of handles, composition, type of spacer arm and the size of haptens. These offer a variety of modifications and largely influence design systems of haptens in order to generate the compound- or class-specific antibodies. Therefore, the hapten design, hapten modification and the synthesis of hapten selection of carrier and coupling of hapten to a carrier and artificial antigen preparation purification and identification are essential processes for the development of the small molecular compounds.
One-stop Compound Synthesis Service for Hapten
- Hapten Design and Modification
- Synthesis of Hapten
- Conjugation of Hapten
- Purification and Identification of Hapten
The critical step of design and modification of hapten is by considering the choice of appropriate modification sites, selection of spacer arm length, selection of linking spacer and carrier, and the coupling method. Based on the chemical criteria, theoretical studies, and molecular modeling techniques, Creative Biolabs can offer the molecular structure design of hapten. These haptens could have a certain degree of complexity or rigidity to maintain the original molecular structure of the hapten and to be most exposed on the surface of carrier protein and the active groups.
The redesigned hapten can be prepared in the form of a stable hapten by different approaches through several step synthetic pathways at Creative Biolabs, after considering how the hapten presented at the binding site on the antibody.
Once the functional molecule has been synthesized, it must be conjugated to a larger carrier protein to elicit the best immune response. Creative Biolabs evaluates several immunizing carrier proteins and the methods of coupling a hapten to ensure the optimal combination, include chemical coupling method, chemical-biological method, and immunological labeling method. Numerous carrier proteins are available options, include keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA), human serum albumin (HSA), bovine thyroglobulin (BTG), and conalbumin (CONA).
Artificial antigen obtained by coupling hapten derivative with the carrier must be purified to remove un-reacted hapten, salts, and other small molecules. Creative Biolabs can use dialysis and gel chromatography methods to purify the artificial antigen to remove un-reacted hapten, salts, and other small molecules. The identification of purified hapten should contain qualitatively identified whether the hapten derivative has been coupled with carrier protein successfully, and quantitatively determined the ratio of protein to the hapten.
Furthermore, Creative Biolabs offers the hapten small molecule design and synthesis service for a variety of compounds, including but not limited to: antibiotics, toxins, pesticides, antiparasitics, hormones, heavy metals, and food additives. If you are interested in our service, please do not hesitate to contact us for more information.