Design and Synthesis of Haptens for Abamectin

Abamectin (ABM) is a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b compounds. These two molecules have very similar biological and toxicological characteristics. A hapten is a substance containing a single antigenic determinant that can’t induce more antibody production unless combined with carrier molecules. As an experienced provider in antibody construction, Creative Biolabs has developed a series of fast, sensitive, and selective strategies to design and synthesize effective haptens for small-molecule compounds. In particular, we are skilled at offering the best solutions and simplified workflows to prepare abamectin haptens for global clients, intending to generate anti-hapten monoclonal/polyclonal antibodies.

Introduction to Abamectin

Abamectin is a general class of closely relevant macrocyclic lactones either directly secreted by actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis or produced by semisynthetic modifications. As used in pesticides, abamectin is made up of ~80% of avermectin B1a and ~20% of avermectin B1b, and is named after avermectin B1. This small molecule is a highly toxic material, but most of the formulated products containing abamectin have low toxicity to humans and mammals. Abamectin is reported to function on insects through interfering with neural and neuromuscular transmission. It acts on a special type of synapse only located in the brain and is protected by the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier in mammalians can be penetrated at a very high concentration, leading to symptoms of central nervous depression. Abamectin isn’t easily absorbed through the skin and doesn’t trigger allergic skin reactions.

The chemical structure of abamectin. Fig.1 The chemical structure of abamectin.

Hapten Design & Synthesis Services at Creative Biolabs

The hapten technology makes use of many protein carriers for conjugating of low-molecular compounds to enhance their immunogenicity, including but not limited to, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), ovalbumin (OVA), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and artificial, non-infectious analogs of diversified viruses (e.g. virus-like nanoparticle, VLP). Among them, the most widely used carrier is BSA because of its advantages such as easy availability, stable physicochemical properties, and high solubility at different pH and ionic strength. To meet the antibody discovery needs of abamectin, Creative Biolabs offers hapten design and synthesis services for abamectin with the most suitable protein carrier and linker strategy.

A schematic diagram of the FLISA based on a fluobody for the determination of AVMs. Fig.2 A schematic diagram of the FLISA based on a fluobody for the determination of AVMs. (Chen, 2015)


  • Multifaceted powerful strategies can be provided to design abamectin hapten, in terms of its physicochemical properties;
  • Optimized design strategy to satisfy your special requirements;
  • One-on-one full service to protect customers’ rights and interests

Abamectin is a bacterium-derived pesticide that has been approved for usage in many countries. This compound has high oral toxicity to mammals and some evidence demonstrated that it could induce negative reproduction effects at a high dosage. The important step to developing immunoassays for the detection of abamectin or other small chemical molecules is to synthesize efficient hapten-carrier complexes with suitable immunogenicity. Based on advanced platforms and rich expertise in antigen preparation, Creative Biolabs offers speedy, cost-effective strategies to design abamectin haptens for worldwide researchers and also provides customized services for the development of particular anti-hapten antibodies. If you’re interested in our services, please don’t hesitate to contact us or directly send us an inquiry.


  1. Stevens, J.; et al. The role of P-glycoprotein in preventing developmental and neurotoxicity. Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition). 2010, 2093-2110.
  2. Chen, M.; et al. Development of a fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avermectins using a fluorescent single-domain antibody. Anal Methods. 2015, 1-31.
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