Triazole Fungicides Hapten Design and Synthesis

Pesticides are categorized into several types referring to different applications, including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. In terms of the difference of chemical structure, fungicides are classified as triazole fungicide, amide fungicide, anilinopyrimidine fungicide, benzimidazole fungicide, and strobilurin fungicide. As known, haptens are not a class of immunogenic substances and can’t induce an antibody response on their own. They can be made by coupling to an immunogenic protein, usually protein fragments. With persistent efforts in antibody research and industry, Creative Biolabs has rich knowledge and abundant experience in generating antibodies against small molecular compounds, particularly triazole fungicides. Notably, our practiced scientists are pleased to offer one-stop custom services from hapten design, antigen preparation, to antibody production to fit clients’ specific demands.

Introduction to Triazole Fungicides

Triazole fungicides are a group of systemic fungicides that comprise 1,2,4-triazole moiety. As known, common members of this class include difenoconazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, hexaconazole, and so on. They have the features of broad-spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity, long residual term, and great conductibility. Triazole fungicides are employed to control a number of fungal diseases on fruit, vegetable, and grain crops, both as pre- and post-harvest applications. The underlying mechanism of their antifungal action is dependent on the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, thus preventing fungal cell wall formation. Definitely, triazole fungicides can restrain sterol R-demethylase, and for that reason, they’re divided into steroid demethylation inhibitors. Considering their wide use and toxicological aspect, it is evident that the presence of these compounds should be regulated by national organizations.

Chemical structures of common triazole fungicides. Tab.1 Chemical structures of common triazole fungicides. (Xu, 2019)

Hapten Design &Synthesis Services at Creative Biolabs

The generation of highly specific and sensitive antibodies to small molecular compounds is greatly based on a proper design of immunizing haptens. Specifically, the detection of several compounds of similar structure can be often achieved by judicious synthesis of hapten-carrier immunogens having a common moiety to these compounds. In this regard, 7 (including penconazole, bromuconazole, cyproconazole, hexaconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, and tetraconazole) of 24 triazole fungicides share a common structural framework. The structure is featured by a central chiral carbon with 4 different substituents: a 1,2,4-triazolyl group, a mono- or dichlorinated phenyl group, as well as R1 and R2 as special groups for each triazole. It is supposed to be reasonable to assume that immunization with haptens coupled to carrier proteins via one of the R groups would raise antibodies against triazole fungicides since the common structure can be sufficiently exposed to the immunity system.

Characteristics of triazole fungicides antibody. Tab.2 Characteristics of triazole fungicides antibody. (Xu, 2019)

Referring to these mechanisms, Creative Biolabs has developed high-quality monoclonal/polyclonal antibodies with a broad specificity toward triazole fungicides. The work contains the design of appropriate haptens presenting the basic structure of this class of triazoles. With this aim, our scientists have prepared efficient hapten-protein conjugates which possess the common triazole and chlorinated aromatic moieties. There’re numerous carrier proteins can be chosen in the projects, including immunoglobulin fragments, bovine serum albumin (BSA), rabbit serum albumin (RSA), human serum albumin (HSA), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), ovalbumin (OVA), thyroglobulin (TG), fibrinogen, and rabbit or chicken gamma globulin. In addition, we have also established two powerful platforms for rapid and sensitive hapten design of triazole fungicide complexes, including but not limited to:


  • Rational design and synthesis strategies for triazole fungicide-based hapten-carrier conjugates
  • Numerous carrier proteins can be introduced, including BSA, RSA, HAS, KLH, OVA, and several protein fragments
  • Technical supports with more than 10 years of experience in artificial antigen impurity and insufficiency
  • Charge by steps enabling more reasonable cost and lower risk for clients

From the toxicological point and as a result of inhibiting enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, triazole fungicides have the potential to cause endocrine-related side effects on humans and wildlife. As a leading service provider of antibody development, Creative Biolabs offers one-stop custom services to accomplish a series of antigen preparation and antibody production processes, comprising the synthesis of triazole fungicide haptens, the production of antibodies with required sensitivity and specificity, and the analysis of immunogenic performance in the determination of triazole fungicides in many applications. If you’re interested in our services, please don’t hesitate to contact us or directly send us an inquiry.


  1. Xu, C.L.; et al. Food Immunoassay. FOOD SCI NUTR. 2019.
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