Design and Synthesis of Class-specific Haptens for Pyrethroid Insecticides

Based on our advanced hapten design and synthesis platform, Creative Biolabs offers customized design and synthesis services of class-specific haptens for pyrethroid insecticides. Scientists at Creative Biolabs are dedicated to helping our customers design the expected class-specific haptens to meet the growing demands.

Pyrethroid Insecticides

Pyrethroids are synthetic compounds of natural pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemums cineraria folium, they are developed to enhance the insecticidal activity of pyrethrins. Pyrethroid insecticides are used widely ranging from mostly as a grain protectant to control insect pests as a household insecticide in public health. The use of pyrethroid compounds has been recently increased due to their remarkably high insecticidal activities and low mammalian toxicity. Pyrethroids consist of one to three asymmetric carbon atoms (chiral centers) and the chirality of pyrethroids might arise due to acid moiety, alcohol moiety, or both. The basic pyrethroid structure or the sites in the fundamental acid and alcohol moieties might alterative to increase the insecticidal potency, photostability, or insecticidal activity.

The synthetic pyrethroids could be divided into two groups based on the chemical structure and putative mechanism of action at insect neurons. The type I compounds, including the natural pyrethrins and some synthetic pyrethroids, are simple esters of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-l-propenyl) cyclopropane carboxylic acid with another cyclic group. The type II pyrethroids have a cyano group and contain esters of an arylcyanohydrin. The type II pyrethroids are much better stable to photolysis than the type I pyrethroids because of the carbon-cyano bond alpha to the ester.

Structures of some synthetic pyrethroids. Fig.1 Structures of some synthetic pyrethroids. (Zhang, 2010)

Class-specific Pyrethroid Insecticides Hapten Design and Synthesis Service

The hapten synthesis approaches combined both novel strategies and adapted concepts for the development of pyrethroid haptens, can obtain antibodies ranging in selectivity from broad to specific. The cross-reactivity results indicated that antibodies against pyrethroids can be used to develop the general immunoassays for either type I or type II pyrethroids. To produce antibodies that would be selective for pyrethroids, the whole pyrethroid molecule is modified to attach a spacer arm containing a functional group to facilitate coupling to carriers further. The general and broad class selective assay can be developed for both type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides. Pyrethroid insecticides have esters containing a phenoxybenzyl group and a dimethylcyclopropane; however, type II pyrethroids can be distinguished from type I pyrethroids by having an -cyano group in the alcohol moiety.

Creative Biolabs offers design and synthesis of class-specific haptens for pyrethroid insecticides based on computer-assisted molecular modeling served as a useful tool for assisting in hapten design. The development of haptens based on an entire pyrethroid molecule as immunogens for the type I pyrethroids can be designed, such as phenothrin, permethrin, bioallethrin, and bioresmethrin. The possible place for design could be at the cyano group of type II pyrethroid and then chosen as an immune hapten for the development of the class-selective of type II pyrethroids.

With our advanced hapten design platform, the experienced scientists at Creative Biolabs are dedicated to helping to design and synthesize class-specific haptens for pyrethroid insecticides according to every client’s requirements. We also provide various other hapten design and synthesis services; please feel free to contact us or directly send us an online inquiry for more information.


  1. Zhang, Q.; et al. Immunoassay development for the class-specific assay for types I and II pyrethroid insecticides in water samples. Molecules. 2010, 15(1): 164-177.
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